Friday, October 02, 2015

Mapping, 4 volume edited collection of key articles in cartography

The other year I was invited by Routledge to edit a substantial, multi-volume, book in their 'Critical Concepts in Geography' series. These basically collate and republish in full a large number of the key papers and book chapters on a given topic. I've edited one of these on 'Mapping' and it has just appeared in print.

The 4 volumes contain 76 separate pieces from the 1908 Max Eckert article ‘On the Nature of Maps and Map Logic’ to an 2013 article, ‘The London Underground Diagram: Between Palimpsest and Canon’, by Samuel Merrill. The 4 volumes are structured by theme as follows:
  • Volume I: Mapping definitions and paradigms
  • Volume II: Map design and communication
  • Volume III: Mapping technologies and techniques
  • Volume IV: People and politics
The volumes when combined this runs to just over 1600 pages over 200 black and white illustrations. As you might expect the set is not cheap; a snip at £900! The production values are pretty good but I thought it was shame they could not have come up with a nice cover design.

I'm not quite clear what the business model is for this kind product. Routledge have invested a lot of up front capital in securing permissions to reprint so much work and in terms of reformatting and copyediting. But I guess they are fairly certain of a large library market that will buying up copies!

Thursday, August 13, 2015

Tunnels Through Time - Manchester's unreaslised underground railway

A bit of press coverage for research into unrealised tunnels under Manchester that have been proposed to try to 'solve' the city's transport problems. Many schemes have come and gone down the years but none have been built. The 'tunnels through time' schematic was created to try to summarise some of the more important proposals and the different routing possibilities for serving the existing train stations and connecting across the city centre.
The graphic was put together by our cartographer Graham Bowden from original historical sources I pull together in old newspapers and obscure transport reports. (There is a large, high-resolution version available as a jpeg image or pdf; it can also be browsed online as a issuu document.)

Following a well crafted press release by Deborah Linton, the Manchester Evening News ran the story on 11 August: Revealed: 100 years of failed transport plans for Manchester – monorail and underground tube included.

More background detail is given in the chapter on the 1970s Picc-Vic rail tunnel in our Infra_MANC exhibition catalogue.

Tuesday, July 21, 2015

Cold War Urbanism

I co-organised, with Richard Brook, a double session of papers at the 16th International Conference of Historical Geographers in London at the start of this month. Our session ran on the Thursday 9th July and had six really interesting papers from a range of international speakers looking at themes around strategic plans, secure structures and technocratic politics in the Cold War. I also did an introductory talk and Richard was down to be the discussant at the end. List of speakers and their paper titles is given below.

Session abstract:
In this session we wish to explore how the threat of nuclear war in the 1950s and ‘60s affected planning at a range of geographic scales. National and international telecommunications networks were built during this time as a direct response to global political conditions. The rise of atomic power and computational technologies required new facilities that were often dispersed and situated variously for secrecy and locally available expertise/experience. The zoning of land and organisation of facilities and the planning towns is not conventionally viewed as informed by processes of the ‘warfare state’ (Edgerton, 2005), but we want to ask; What were the patterns of the built environment, economic structures and aesthetics / cultures of Cold War urbanism in Britain? As Boyd and Linehan (2013) state in the introduction to their recent book Ordnance: War +Architecture & Space, we need to be alert to ‘escalation in the intersections between the fabric of the landscape and the technologies of war and the extrusion and mutation of war from the battlefield into everyday life’. The papers draw on a range of different evidential bases, archival research, personal histories and lived experiences and theoretical ideas to understand the spatiality of technological development, primarily focused upon city scales and architectural resultants.

  1. Cold war urbanism: the challenge of survivable city infrastructures; Martin Dodge (University of Manchester, UK)
  2.  Promise and threat: The dawn of the atomic age and the architectural imaginary; Russell Rodrigo (University of New South Wales, Australia)
  3. The iconography of the nuclear war threat in Cold War Bologna; Eloisa Betti (University of Bologna, Italy)
  4. Airspace in the nuclear age; Jonathan Hogg (University of Liverpool, UK)

  1. The Warsaw Metro and the Warsaw Pact: from deep tunnels to cut and cover; Alex Lawrey (Independent Scholar / Town Planner)
  2. Forming an everyday Cold War network: The constitutive role of law, surveying and asset management in the birth, life and death of Royal Observer Corps; Luke Bennett and Sarah Cardwell (Sheffield Hallam University, UK)
  3. The anticipatory space of the bunker, modernity’s dark mirror; Gary A. Boyd (Queen’s University Belfast, UK) and Denis Linehan (University College Cork, Ireland)

Monday, June 01, 2015

Spaces of Infrastructure: The History and Description of the Manchester Waterworks

A good exemplar of infrastructural geography can be seen in the major Victorian engineering efforts to secure clean drinking water for the people of Manchester. This involved developing a large-scale system of reservoirs along the valley of the Etherow River to gather and store the plentiful rain water falling on the Peak District hills. Known as the Longdendale supply system, it became fully operational in 1877 and was able to deliver over 17 million gallons of clean drinking water per day to the city through a ten mile long aqueduct using only the force of gravity. It was widely celebrated at the time as a truely pioneering piece of engineering and one that brought real public health benefits to the residents of Manchester.

The complexity of the waterworks infrastructure is well summarised 
in this 1881 diagram. (Image courtesy of Manchester City Archives.)

A detailed narration of the Longdendale project, which commenced in 1846 and took several decades to complete, was provided in a book length treatise, the History and Description of the Manchester Waterworks, written by the lead engineer responsible for its design and execution, John Frederick Bateman. His book was published in 1884 and it was a weighty tone packed with factual details and accompanied by over fifty plates. 

The whole book, including all the maps and plans has now been digitised through the expertise of the Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care in the University of Manchester Library and is freely available to browse online. (If you want to own a print copy of Bateman's original book, they are available on the secondhand market but they're not cheap to buy.) While the book is somewhat autobiography, and unsurprisingly tends to privilege Bateman's role in the work, it does seem in many respects to be reliable account of the emergence of this infrastructural system. 
Browse the full version of the

Storing Water Safely
Engineering reservoirs is, at its most fundamental, all about the construction of the core of the dam to hold back the pressure of millions of tons of water. One of the hardest engineering challenges Bateman faced in building the Longdendale reservoir chain was the significant problems he encountered in making the Woodhead dam secure and watertight, in part because of the unstable ground conditions around the chosen embankment site. Some of this detail is captured in this diagram from the book, the 'longitudinal section of puddle trench for the second embankment shewing the geological strata'. (You can examine a high resolution version of this diagram here.)

 "Longitudinal section of puddle trench for the second embankment shewing the geological strata", from the History and Description of the Manchester Waterworks.

Bateman recounted the challenge of the Woodhead dam as follows:

"The puddle trench of this embankment was an expensive and troublesome work. The borings, which were taken before the work was commenced, were, as has been stated, very deceptive. They indicated the existence of rock at a depth of about 20 feet below the surface of the ground on the Derbyshire or south side of the valley, and though it was well known that here there was an ancient landslip - the rock which was. supposed to exist was also supposed to be the original ground on which the slip had taken place. Instead, however, of rock being found at this depth large loose stones or blocks of rock were found, sometimes resting on each other; and though the material in which they were imbedded was generally stiff retentive clay, there were beds or "pot-holes" of sand or gravel which it was deemed prudent to follow or cut out. It was, therefore, necessary to go to a much greater depth and distance into the hill than was anticipated."  (p.121)

Seeing the Infrastructural System
The History and Description of the Manchester Waterworks runs to 224 pages and has over 50 large and well crafted illustrations including a range of overview maps, detailed engineering schematics, cross sectional diagrams and statistical charts. One of my favourite illustrations is this finely proportioned fold-out map that delineates the sizes and sinuous shapes of the five main reservoirs along the chain, from running in sequence from Bottoms upto Woodhead, plus the smaller reservoirs in side valleys and the various anciliary facilities, connections and conduits.

"Plan shewing storage reservoirs in the valley of Longdendale", from the History and Description of the Manchester Waterworks

Following on from the development of the supply system in the Longdendale valley, the growing demand from city and surrounding towns meant Manchester's infrastructural imperatives looked even further north in the 1870s to the abundant water available in the Lake District. Manchester next water supply scheme was to tranform the Thirlmere Lake into a huge storage reservoir and to build a 96 mile long gravity feed aqueduct.

Some further reading:

Sunday, June 29, 2014

1923 Manchester Ship Canal strip mapStrip Maps of the Manchester Ship Canal

I am a big fan of unusual modes of mapping. One cartographic design approach that has long fascinated me is the linear route chart, known as the 'strip map'. A few years ago for my PhD research I wrote a draft chapter considering how the process of data routing through the Internet could be represented using the strip map concept, and also thought of as a kind of 'Songline'. (Somewhat sadly, this work did not make into the finished thesis as it was not deemed worthy by my PhD examiners!)

Anyway, the cartographic scholar Alan MacEachren has also written some key articles describing the nature and utility of strip maps a couple of decades ago. In particular, he usefully delineated the essential characteristics of strip maps in his 1986 article, setting out a five-level schema of ‘stripness’:
  1.  linear form omitting geographic detail beyond a narrow route corridor,
  2. orientation with a direction other than north at the top, not orientated along a cardinal direction, 
  3. lack of concern with geographic orientation; no indication of cardinal directions given,
  4. relaxation of planimetric accuracy to allow variations in scale and orientation between different parts of the map so as to maintain the linear format of the route,
  5. strict linear representation of route way with complete disregard to consistent scale or direction.
    The strip map can be a very effective means of representing long complex routes in a clear fashion by eliminating a lot of extraneous detail. Despite its utility it is not a widely seen mode of mapping but examples can be found throughout cartographic history, including some ancient Roman examples and well known pilgrimage charts from the medieval period. The strip map came into its own with the development of better transportation from the eighteenth century onwards in terms of displaying turnpike roads, canals and railway lines. The different contexts in which the strip map has been deployed are well documented in another paper by MacEachren and his Johnson.

    Interestingly multiple versions of strip maps were also published through the twentieth century by the owners of the Manchester Ship Canal to promote its facilities. The linear nature of the 36 mile long canal made it well suited to being displayed in abstract form that eliminates much geographical reality for sake of clarity. The first example map, shown above, is from 1923 and represents the Ship Canal as a dead straight orange line from the Mersey down to Manchester Docks. All the locks and different bridge crossings are neatly delineated, along with small icons locating important canal side industrial facilities, such as Robertson's Steel Works at Thelwell. (The location of Lymm golf course is also shown for some reason.) Wider loops of the older Bridgewater Canal the River Mersey that accompany the MSC are also depicted.

    The second example, shown on the right, is a somewhat more simplified in informational content and also slightly less 'strip' straight, with the cartographer choosing to represent at least some of the sinuosity of the canal's real geography. The result is rather cartoon like, in keeping with its role as the key illustration in a tourist leaflet to guide people taking an 'educational cruise' down the Manchester Ship Canal in the mid 1960s. (This image is scanned from an original copy of the leaflet in the Brian Robinson Archive, courtesy of Lloyd Robinson.)

    Manchester Ship Canal strip map, 1970s?
    On the left is more contemporary version, described as a 'diagrammatic map', which is packed with textual description parallel to the artificially straightened blue Manchester Ship Canal channel. (Indeed, the map component seems rather constrained by the more verbose text, making it less aesthetically pleasing chart than earlier examples.) Again the multiple crossings and locks along the MSC's full length are carefully denoted from Eastham locks on the Mersey Estuary downwards. Compared to earlier examples, the Queen Elizabeth II oil dock at top of Canal, newly built in 1954, provides a somewhat odd looking addition. There is little coverage of the Bridgewater Canal on this strip map, reflecting its diminished status as a transport route by the post-war period.
    If you want to see these three example charts in more detail, I have put them together into single pdf: Manchester Ship Canal strip maps.

    Further reading:

    Sunday, March 30, 2014

    Code and Conveniences talk slides
    I was in Ireland last week at the official launch event for Rob Kitchin's multi-year, multi-million euro Programmable City project. I gave a short talk, Code and Conveniences, looking at software in a small but significant space. It considered how some public toilet spaces are being reshaped, with sensor technologies and software processes deployed to render toileting practices into a sequence of touch-free activities, and the partial action of code to diminish direct handling of 'dirty' bathroom surfaces and fixtures, and the risks of germ cross-contamination.

    The talk was based on a 2012 book chapter, Towards touch-free spaces: sensors, software and the automatic production of shared public toilets. Somewhat surprisingly my presentation also got a bit of coverage in the Irish Times newspaper.

    Tuesday, December 17, 2013

    Our Code/Space monograph was recently the focus of a book review round-table in the journal Dialogues in Human Geography. Reviews and commentaries on the book were generously contributed from leading Geographers Paul Adam, Aharon Kellerman, Sam Kinsley and Mark Wilson. As the authors we got a chance to respond  and reflect on the book now its been in print a while. You can read our short response essay 'Code/space and the nature, production and enrolment of software'. I quite liked our concluding notion:
    "whilst many students are Web savvy and adroit in using software, they are largely ignorant of how to produce it. Perhaps then the real follow-on from Code/ Space is need for someone to write a book not on the geographies of code but a textbook to teach geographers to code."

    Code/Space has been selling quite well apparently and the publisher MIT Press has decided to release the book as paperback version, which will be somewhat cheaper and will hopefully help it to reach a wider audience. 

    Other related news, Rob Kitchin is developing the code research further under auspices of his large Programmable City project. They have created a new website to disseminate their findings, at . Other details are pass code related publications and talks are still on my 'legacy' page.

    Sunday, October 13, 2013

    Plans of post-war Manchester and some publicity coverage

    Over the last few months I undertook a small digitisation project with colleagues Joe Blakey and Richard Brook. With permission from Manchester City Council we captured a series of key public planning documents and maps relating to the city and its regional context. They span a forty year period through the middle of the twentieth century and are made freely available online for the first time. The digitisation work was supported by the Manchester Statistical Society’s Campion Fund.

    With the help of the University press officer Mike Addelman we managed to generate some media coverage for the digitised plans. The initial press release, "The city that never was: 40 years of plans for Manchester go online" was picked up by the Manchester Evening News who ran a double page story: "Revealed: Long-lost documents show plan by city chiefs to knock down Manchester Town Hall ..." on the 2nd October and a few days later by the BBC News website.

    A second press release focused on the nice rainfall map from the 1926 regional survey and was featured by Mancunian Matters website and again by a full page story in MEN about the myth of 'rainy Manchester'.

    Tuesday, July 09, 2013

    Guardian Underground Telephone Exchange

    Here is a 'working paper' draft of an article on the Cold War era underground telecommunications infrastructure in central Manchester. It was co-written with Richard Brook and derived from a chapter in our 2012 Infra_MANC exhibition catalogue. The article has been accept for publication by the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society but might take a good few months (or longer?) before the next issue of their Transactions gets released.

    A plan Richard drew of the central cable and equipment tunnels lying under China Town in the city centre is shown above. It is quite an extensive underground space, as indicated by the photograph below showing the distances to the ends of the cable tunnels from the central core. More historic photos of the construction of the Guardian Exchange in the 1950s can be seen on George Coney's useful Cold War History in Manchester web pages.  

    A view of the Guardian cable tunnels, 
    taken by English Heritage in 1998.

    Tuesday, June 11, 2013

    One of my favourite old maps of Manchester

    I have spent a good deal of time over the last couple of years looking at a wide array of maps of Manchester - old / new, pretty / ugly, useful / unworkable. One of the most attractive and effective maps I've come across is this early twentieth century street map produced by the cartography company G.W. Bacon & Co. Ltd.

    The coverage of Bacon's Plan of Manchester and Salford feels just about right. Large enough to show most of the developed area but compact enough to be legible and easily usable as a sheet map. I really like the colour scheme, with its brown built up areas and green parks and recreation grounds. The symbol design is simple and clear, and the streets are well labelled.

    Overall, the aesthetic leads to harmonious cartography and one that really captures the scale and shape of the city that was at its peak in many senses.

    I have an original nicely framed and hanging on my kitchen wall. If you want to see this map in much greater detail I have also scanned it and put it online (warning its an 18 meg jpeg file).

    An earlier version of Bacon's Plan of Manchester and Salford, dated to 1907, from the Manchester City Library's Local Studies Collection has been digitised and can be browsed on Rylands Library Luna service. The cartographic design is quite similar but the extent of urbanisation is somewhat less.

    Saturday, June 01, 2013

    Infra_MANC exhibition catalogue released as free pdf 

    We put together a substantial catalogue to support our exhibition Infra_MANC: Post-war Infrastructures of Manchester that was on public display for a short spell in spring 2012. We printed 250 copies of the catalogue and these have now all been distributed or sold, so we have decided to make a digital version available as a free download.

    The two hundred and twenty page catalogue is stuffed full of illustrations, many of which we unearthed from the archives for the exhibition and have never been published before. The images above and below are typical page spreads from the catalogue. (The design and typesetting was all done by my collaborator Richard Brook.) The lengthy catalogue text provides a cultural narrative and technical history on four distinct infrastructures from the 1950s and 60s: the Mancunian Way motorway, the unbuilt Picc-Vic railway tunnel, the Guardian underground telephone exchange and the speculative designs for a city centre heliport.

    Saturday, May 18, 2013

    The Making of Post-war Manchester symposium and a new presentation on airports and heliports

    On the 8th May I co-organised a successful one-day symposium looking at urban change in post-war Manchester, with a focus on infrastructure projects and major government plans in the three decades from 1945. Well over a hundred people attended the event and heard a fascinating sets of presentations from a range of geographers, historians, planners, architects and archaeologists, with well known professors, established scholars and new researchers speaking.

    The intellectual objectives and the programme of the symposium are given on the introductory slides and other details for the day were laid out for participants in a nice little printed booklet which Richard Brook and myself put together. You can also look through the slides for many of the talks given on the PostwarMcr blog. The symposium was made possible with financial support from Cities@Manchester initiative and the Campion Fund of the Manchester Statistical Society. We plan to develop a edited book following the themes of the symposium and many speakers have committed to contributing chapters.

    I also gave a new paper on the significance of aviation during the post-war period focused on the large scale development of airport infrastructure in Manchester up to the mid 1970s. This was examined in contrast to the failure of the helicopter to become a routine form of transport during this period and the unbuilt schemes for a centrally located heliport for the city. Now I have to write the talk into a formal paper, as well as undertake some more in depth research on the different phases of building at Manchester Airport.

    Tuesday, April 23, 2013

    The Making of Post-war Manchester, 1945-74: Plans and Projects symposium

    I am convening a small 1-day symposium on the histories of urban change in the post-war period, looking at a range of different plans and projects relating to Manchester. The event is being held on the 8th of May and is being co-organised with Richard Brook in the Manchester School of Architecture. It is free to attend and you can register for a ticket from here.

    We think we have put together a strong programme. The presentations will consider events, such as ‘smokeless zones’, the emergence of a computer cluster in the city, and large scale built projects of the era, including Mancunian Way and the University expansion, in relation to civic plans, infrastructural initiatives, local and national government policies, technological innovation and the wider fiscal climate. Speakers include Michael Nevell from Salford University talking on 'From Industrial City to Industrial Archaeology', from Bangor University we have Peter Shapely discussing 'Social Housing in Post-war Manchester' and Professor John Pickstone who will examine 'Health and Hospitals'.

    Wednesday, March 20, 2013

    Forgotten Plans for Heliports
    Last week I went over to the University of Liverpool to give a seminar in the Department of Geography and Planning. It was a friendly event and I tried out a new talk on the historical geography of the helicopter and unrealised planning for city centre heliports in the 1950s. This is a fairly new strand of research coming out of the broader Mapping Manchester project and more directly from the successful Infra_MANC exhibition that I co-curated last spring.

    If you're interested you can browse through the slides on 'Vertical Urbanism and the Forgotten Plans for Heliports'. The image above is an example of the kinds of unrealised plans for rooftop heliports that I am examining. This particular drawing, from the early 1950s, was for a helicopter station in the centre of Liverpool but was not actually built. (Image courtesy of Liverpool City Archives.)

    I am giving an amended version of this heliport talk at a one-day workshop in Birmingham next week on Infrastructure and the Rebuilt Post-war City, where I will drop the Liverpool-specific examples and add in a little bit more on London and Birmingham. I plan to write this material up as a full paper in the next few months, but in the meantime you might want to read the 'helicopter dreaming' chapter in the print catalogue from our Infra_MANC exhibition - copies still available for just £10.

    Monday, February 11, 2013

    Crowdsourced Cartography 

    The finalised journal version of a paper on crowdsourced cartography and the relevance of the notion of prosumption to geographical information creation has come out in the latest edition of Environment and Planning A (January 2013, Vol 45(1)). It is co-authored with Rob Kitchin and an earlier draft has been up on SSRN for a while. The abstract is as follows:

    "This paper considers the emerging phenomenon of crowdsourced cartography in relation to ideas about the organisation of contemporary knowledge production in capitalist societies. Taking a philosophical perspective that views mapping as a processual, creative, productive act, constructed through citational, embodied, and contextual experiences, we examine how we might profitably analyse collaborative crowdsourced projects like OpenStreetMap to better understand geographic knowledge production in a shifting political economy and sociotechnical landscape. We begin by characterising crowdsourcing practices in the wider context of Web 2.0, which some commentators assert is rapidly becoming a new, dominant mode of knowledge production. We then contextualise Web 2.0 knowledge production, drawing upon the ideas of sociologist George Ritzer, and his notion of ‘prosumption’, geographer Michael Goodchild’s idea of volunteerist ‘citizen scientists’, and economic commentator Nicholas Carr’s critique of the ‘ignorance of crowds’. We then go on to discuss the changing nature of cartography in the Web 2.0 era with respect to authorship, ontology, representation, and temporality."

    Keywords: cartography, crowdsourcing, ‘prosumers’, Web 2.0, authorship, ontology, representation, temporality

    Sunday, December 30, 2012

    Book Reviews

    A couple of recent reviews in academic journals for our book Code/Space, interesting to get positive feedback. My good mate in Kentucky, Matt Zook's provided a review in Regional Studies, (Vol. 46(8)). While Peter Adey's review in the Journal of Transport Geography, (Vol. 26) opens by noting that "Code/Space is a pretty remarkable piece of scholarship. It works in a number of important ways to collate and develop the authors' research on software, the internet and communications over the last 15 years or so."

    Also, you might be interested in a book review that I wrote on the The Culture of Diagram by John Bender and Michael Marrinan (Stanford University Press, 2010). The review has just come out in the latest edition of the journal Cartographica. I was rather critical of this particular book, arguing that "... their analysis suffered from drawing on such a narrow range of diagrammatic applications and that it offers a narrowly constrained empirical spatial and temporal sample of evidence. The result is a serious and scholarly book, but one in which genuinely novel insights are few."

    Thursday, December 20, 2012

    Publicity Burst on the Manchester Blitz Maps

    We managed to get some good media coverage about the online maps of Manchester, especially regarding the Second World War bomb damage mapping held by the City Archives. Following a good press release from Mike Addelman we were featured in a great double page spread in Manchester Evening News, including a 'lovely' picture of my head (see partial scan of the hardcopy newspaper page below). The story 'Blitz Maps Unearthed' was actually trailed on the front cover of the newspaper. The version on the MEN website has a useful slideshow of images, again including a couple of cheesy images of myself holding big old paper maps in a supposedly scholarly fashion.

    The 'blitz maps' story also got a little mention in The Times newspaper last Friday. The following day Donna Sherman (Rylands map librarian) and David Govier (Manchester City archivist) were interviewed about the new online cartographic resources for Manchester, particularly the bomb damage maps, on BBC Northwest Tonight, BBC Radio Manchester and Granada News. And just this morning I noticed that the BBC News Manchester website has a nice annotated slideshow of some of the maps that Rylands Library has digitised, along with a few related historic photographs.

    Sunday, December 09, 2012

    Maps of aerial bombing of the City of Manchester during the Second World War

    These maps have long been sought after and generally thought not to exist for Manchester. However, a large folio of annotated Ordnance Survey county series maps showing the location of all bombs dropped and the damaged caused to buildings during the Second World War have been unearthed. The maps contain a lot of detail, including the type of bomb and the date it was dropped. Accompanying the maps are a large set of index cards detailing the properties effected and the damage caused. The maps and index cards were prepared by the City Architects Department in the Manchester Corporation as part of their management of the city during the war.

    I first came across the maps as part of ongoing research about 'Mapping Manchester' in December 2009 when they were held (or perhaps 'lost') within working files of the Planning Department in the Town Hall Extension. Now they have been transferred to Manchester Archives and are available for inspection by the public. (Their archive reference number is GB127.MISC/1192.)

    I have been working with Kevin Bolton and David Govier, in Manchester Archives, to get the whole folio of bomb damage maps properly digitised and made available online. This digitisation was undertaken recently as a voluntary project by the University of Manchester Library, with the assistance of Donna Sherman in the map library and the experts in the Rylands Deansgate CHICC group doing the photography. You can browse all 47 sheets of the bomb damage maps in exacting detail through the Library's LUNA website. (There are also several hundred of other historic maps of Manchester available now on LUNA, including many nineteenth century street maps and a range of Ship Canal plans.)

    Given the original Ordnance Survey base maps rather annoyingly split the city centre of Manchester across four separate sheets it can be hard to get a sense of the overall pattern of bomb damage in the core area. Consequently, I decided to get the four central sheets stitched together to create the synthetic map image shown above (and available as a pdf download). The stitching together of the images of the four map sheets was expertly done by Graham Bowden, who works in the University's Cartography Unit. The edge matching across the sheets is not perfect, however, as the original maps have warped and stretched over the past sixty years and so are no longer exactly rectangular.

    The key for the bomb annotations shown on the map is as follows:

    • Red circle: fire bomb
    • Blue circle: high explosive bomb
    • Green circle: land mine
    • Solid red shading: building demolished
    • Red hatching: structure partially damaged
    It is also important to note in looking at the map above that the apparent lack of any bombing or damage over the River Irwell in Salford and Trafford is due to the nature of data collection and not reality on the ground. These maps were produced by the Manchester Corporation and therefore only detailed damage within their jurisdiction. Salford suffered quite significant amount of bombing in the Second Word War.

    These maps are a fascinating historical artefact and potentially a useful source for understanding the immediate physical  impact of the war on Manchester and the longer-term influence this had on post-war urban development in the city centre.

    Friday, October 12, 2012

    My new edited book is now in print and is available to purchase from booksellers. Touching Space, Placing Touch has taken quite a while to complete but the result is, I think, a worthwhile volume. Full credit to my co-editor Mark Paterson who was really responsible for guiding the intellectual development of the book and took real charge in getting it into print.

    We are both pleased with the end result. Its got a range of good chapters and some real thematic coherence. Thanks to all our contributors for their efforts. Credit to Ashgate as well for doing an effective and professional job with the editing, design and physical production - its a nice hardback volume. It looks good on my office shelf!

    While its quite expensive (£65; $120), this is very much the norm for this type of volume. We hope it will find an audience, get some good reviews and sell some copies. This promo flyer gives more details on the content of the book along with a copy of the cover blurb.

    Friday, September 21, 2012

    The Map Reader awarded a book prize

    We were pleased to learn a few months ago that our recent edited book The Maps Reader (Wiley, 2011) had been selected by the Berendel Foundation for the award of the Cantemir Prize 2012.

    My co-editor Rob Kitchin attended a conference, Mapping Humans, at Oxford University last week where the award was officially made. Shown left is the certificate recording the award to The Map Reader and below is a photograph of Rob with HRH Prince Radu of Romania, who formally gave the prize to us.

    Thursday, September 06, 2012

    I was invited to give a talk down in London at a seminar on the Shape of Knowledge put together by David Penfold for the International Society for Knowledge Organization. My talk on 'Mapping Software' was a blend of ideas about cybergeography and code/space. The slides from my talk at available here.

    Monday, September 03, 2012

    New journal paper in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers.

    A further theoretical argument around cartography as practice and the best way to research mapping has been published in TIBGs as an early view article. It is entitled, Unfolding mapping practices: a new epistemology for cartography, and is co-authored with Rob Kitchin and Justin Gleeson. There is a local version available here. The abstract for the paper is as follows:

    "In recent years there has been a turn within cartographic theory from a representational to a processual understanding of mapping. Maps have been re-conceptualised as mappings that ceaselessly unfold through contingent, citational, habitual, negotiated, reflexive and playful practices, embedded within relational contexts. In this paper, we explore what this rethinking means for cartographic epistemology, contending that attention needs to be focused on understanding cartography through the lens of practices – how mappings are (re)made in diverse ways (technically, socially, bodily, aesthetically and politically) by people within particular contexts and cultures as solutions to everyday tasks. We detail how these practices can be profitably examined using a suite of methods – genealogies, ethnographies, ethnomethodology, participant observation, observant participation and deconstruction – that are sensitive to capturing and distilling the unfolding and contextual nature of mapping. To illustrate our argument we narrate the unfolding production and consumption of a set of mappings of so-called ‘ghost estates’ in Ireland, a public geography project that has been covered over 300 times in local, national and international media and that has contributed to Irish public discourse and policy debates."

    Key words: cartography; epistemology; ontogenesis; practice; ghost estates; public geography

    Thursday, August 30, 2012

    Quoted in the papers

    I was interviewed about the politics behind mapping technologies by Guardian journalist Oliver Burkeman a few weeks ago. His article, How Google and Apple's digital mapping is mapping us appeared in the paper yesterday. The article made the front cover of the G2 section and generated a good number of online comments. I got a small quote:

    "The map is mapping us," says Martin Dodge, a senior lecturer in human geography at Manchester University. "I'm not paranoid, but I am quite suspicious and cynical about products that appear to be innocent and neutral, but that are actually vacuuming up all kinds of behavioural and attitudinal data."

    The fact that I claimed not to be paranoid has raised a couple of comments from my colleagues.

    Also, my recent book gets a nice name check in an interesting comment piece about the growing power of software algorithms in academia. The article is entitled Leave the thinking to us, in the Times Higher Education. It is by sociologist David Beer and he notes:

    "In Rob Kitchin and Martin Dodge's book Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life (2011), the authors demonstrate the importance of software for the functioning of the social world everywhere from the home to air travel. It would be remiss to think that higher education somehow sits outside these broader social developments. Kitchin and Dodge point out that even mundane technologies such as Microsoft Word or Adobe Photoshop come "loaded" with "algorithmic normalities" that "subtly ... direct users to certain solutions". Without thinking too hard, we can immediately see that PowerPoint's algorithmic normalities are likely to be providing us with subtle directions in how to lecture."

    Friday, August 10, 2012

    Paper analysing the content of the City of Manchester Plan, published in 1945

    I've just received the pageproofs for a paper, coauthored with Chris Perkins. Its due to be published in the autunm hopefully.

    Mapping the Imagined Future: The Roles of Visual Representation in the 1945 City of Manchester Plan
    by Chris Perkins and Martin Dodge

    Visual representations have often played a crucial role in imagining future urban forms. In the aftermath of the Second World War, a noteworthy new genre of urban plan was published in Britain, most deploying seductively optimistic illustrations of ways forward not only for the reconstruction of bomb-damaged towns and cities but also for places left largely undamaged. This paper assesses the contribution of visual elements in this process with a detailed case study of the maps, statistical charts, architectural drawings and photographs enrolled into the 1945 City of Manchester Plan. The cultural production of these visual representations is evaluated. Our analysis interprets the form, symbology and active work of different imagery in the process of reimagining Manchester, but also assesses the role of these images as markers of a particular moment in the cultural economy of the city. This analysis is carried out in relation to the ethos of the Plan as a whole.

    Keywords: City of Manchester Plan; planning; visual practices; mapping; Manchester; architectural drawings; photographs; futurity

    Thursday, August 02, 2012

    Our chapter on Manchester as a 'hydraulic city' read through original maps and plans of water supplies and sewage systems has been published in a new edited book Mapping Cultures: Place, Practice, Performance (Palgrave). The book is a useful collection of pieces relating to spatial representation and aspects of urbanity, expertly pulled together by Les Roberts.

    You can read an uncorrected pageproof version of the chapter, 'Maps, Memories and Manchester: The Cartographic Imagination of the Hidden Networks of the Hydraulic City'. Below is an example of the kinds of historical mapping we analyse, in this case a simple segmented chart of the Thirlmere aqueduct, a triumph of Victorian engineering that brings fresh water from the Lake District  down to Manchester.

      (Source: The Engineer, 19th October 1894, page 340. 
    A scanned copy of this issue is available from Grace's Guide.)